User Defined Format for Parameters
This topic introduces user defined format for parameters such as date format, decimal number format, and string format.
Below is a list of the sections covered in this topic:
Date Format Syntax
How can you define formats for different types of parameters? The most commonly used are the Date and Time formats.
To specify the time format, use a time pattern string. In this pattern, all ASCII letters are reserved as pattern letters, and are defined as follows:
|M||Month in a year||Text & Number||July & 07|
|d||Day in a month||Number||10|
|h||Hour in am/pm (1~12)||Number||12|
|H||Hour in a day (0~23)||Number||0|
|m||Minute in an hour||Number||30|
|s||Second in a minute||Number||55|
|E||Day in a week||Text||Tuesday|
|D||Day in a year (Julian)||Number||189|
|F||Day of the week in a month||Number||2 (2nd Wed in July)|
|w||Week in a year||Number||27|
|W||Week in a month||Number||2|
|k||Hour in a day (1~24)||Number||24|
|K||Hour in am/pm (0~11)||Number||0|
|z||Time zone||Text||Pacific Standard Time|
|'||Escape for text|
- The count of pattern letters determines the format in months and years.
- Month: 4 or more pattern letters, use full form; 3 use short form in capital letters.
- Number: the minimum number of digits. Shorter numbers are zero-padded to this amount. For example M for month will show 1 digit for January - September and 2 digits for October - December. However, Year is handled in a different way. If the number of 'y' letters is 2, then the year will be truncated to 2 digits.
- Text & Number: 3 or over, uses text, otherwise uses number. For example MMM shows JAN and MM shows 01.
- Any characters in the pattern that are not in the ranges of ['a'..'z'] and ['A'..'Z'] will be treated as quoted text. For example, characters such as ':', '.', ' ', '#' and '@' will appear in the resulting time text even if they have not been single quoted.
- A pattern containing any invalid pattern letter will result in a thrown exception during formatting or parsing.
- Java will automatically show the alpha dates such as month in the user's specified language.
- Format Pattern: "yyyy.MM.dd G 'at' hh:mm:ss z"
Result: 2017.07.10 AD at 15:08:56 PDT
- Format Pattern: "EEE, MMM d, ''yy"
Result: Wed, July 10, 17
- Format Pattern: "h:mm a"
Result: 12:08 PM
- Format Pattern: "hh 'o''clock' a, zzzz"
Result: 12 o'clock PM, Pacific Daylight Time
- Format Pattern: "K:mm a, z"
Result: 0:00 PM, PST
- Format Pattern: "MMMM dd yyyy GGG hh:mm aaa"
Result: January 10 2017 AD 12:08 PM
- Format Pattern: "dd-MMM-yyyy"
Decimal Number Format Syntax
|*||A digit, zero shows as a star||Can't mix 0, *, and _ in same format|
|_||A digit, zero shows as a space||Can't mix 0, *, and _ in same format|
|#||A digit, zero shows as blank||The actual number may be much larger than the format provided|
|.||Placeholder for decimal separator, it may be a comma in some locales.|
|,||Placeholder for grouping delimiter, it may be a period in some locales.||Shows the interval to be used|
|;||Separates formats||positive and negative.|
|-||If there is no explicit negative sign, - is prefixed||"#,##0.00" -> "#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)"|
|%||Divides by 100 and shows as a percentage|
|X||Any other characters can be used in the prefix or suffix|
String Format Syntax
|%||Any string of zero or more characters.||WHERE title LIKE '%computer%' finds all book titles with the word 'computer' anywhere in the book title.|
|_ (underscore)||Any single character.||WHERE au_fname LIKE '_ean' finds all four-letter first names that end with ean (Dean, Sean, and so on).|
|[ ]||Any single character within the specified range ([a-f]) or set ([abcdef]).||WHERE au_lname LIKE '[C-P]arsen' finds author last names ending with arsen and beginning with any single character between C and P, for example Carsen, Larsen, Karsen, and so on.|
|[^]||Any single character not within the specified range ([^a-f]) or set ([^abcdef]).||WHERE au_lname LIKE 'de[^l]%' all author last names beginning with de and where the following letter is not l.|
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